Ubuntu 16.04 -> 18.04 (LTS)

Ubuntu 18.04 Bionic Beaver was released on April 26, 2018. So it’s time to upgrade version of my OS (Ubuntu) from 16.04 to 18.04. This version is LTS (Long term supported), so it is supported to 2023 (more info: wiki.ubuntu.com).

Pre upgrade

If you are using SSH connection it’s good idea to keep your session alive:

ClientAliveInterval 60
sudo systemctl restart ssh

Also I suggest to start connection via ssh on another port (if on 22 will be broken).

First, you need to do is updating your current system.

sudo apt update && sudo apt dist-upgrade

Some of you haven’t update-manager-core package. So be sure and tap:

sudo apt install update-manager-core

You can check your current version of installed OS:

lsb_release -a


Edit one file to get access to upgrade from command line:

sudo nano /etc/update-manager/release-upgrades

On the last line tap this line (below) and then save it.


Run command to start upgrading your Ubuntu:

do-release-upgrade -d

Post upgrade

Congratulations! Check your current version of Ubuntu via terminal:

lsb_release -a


Paypal + Angular 6

In the last week I told you that, my posts will be short and to the point. So I decided to create a repository to help you integrate one of the famous possibility of paying with one of the best framework to build web applications.


As you can see:

  1. Your buyer clicks on a PayPal button.
  2. The PayPal button calls the PayPal API to set up the payment.
  3. The button starts the checkout flow in the browser.

Link to my repository: https://github.com/tomaszstaskiewicz/paypal-angular

Full tutorial about integration with paypal: https://developer.paypal.com/docs/checkout/

To .key and to .pem

At my company, everyday I’ve work with public and private keys. Idea with this key is very simple: I have got one key(private), clients gets another(public). Two keys works only together, a third doesn’t exist.

Where did I used that? For example with https. I need .pem and .key files. PEM includes certificate and KEY include private (usually RSA) key.

But what if client give me another files, like .pfx, crt, csr…? How to live with it?

Below, I give you a little review of this conversion (for more inspiration). Continue reading →